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Breast cancer for women : reducing the risk of breast cancer for women at high risk

Breast cancer usually begins with the cells in the milk-producing ducts (aggressive lactic carcinoma), The reasons,Symptoms,Risk,Reducing the risk....


Breast cancer for women

Symptoms of breast cancer for women

  • Breast cancer signs and symptoms may include:
  • A breast lump or thickening that differs from surrounding tissue.
  • A change in the size, shape, or appearance of the breast.
  • Changes to the skin on the breast, such as dimpling.
  • An inverted nipple is newly emerging.
  • Crusting, scaling, stiffness, or shedding in the pigmented area of ​​the skin around the nipple (areola) or breast skin.
  • Redness or pitting of the breast skin, such as the skin of an orange.

Breast cancer usually begins with the cells in the milk-producing ducts (aggressive lactic carcinoma). Breast cancer can also begin in the glandular tissue called lobules (invasive lobular carcinoma), or in other cells or tissues within the breast.

The reasons for breast cancer for women

Doctors know that breast cancer occurs when some breast cells begin to grow in an abnormal way. These cells divide more quickly than normal cells and continue to accumulate, forming a lump or tumor. Cells may spread (metastasize) through your breasts to your lymph nodes or to other parts of your body.

Breast cancer usually begins with the cells in the milk-producing ducts (violent lactic carcinoma). Breast cancer can also begin in the glandular tissue called lobules (invasive lobular carcinoma), or in other cells or tissues within the breast.

Researchers have identified factors related to lifestyle, hormonal and environmental factors that may increase the risk of developing breast cancer. But it is not clear why some people develop cancer despite the absence of any risk factors surrounding them, while others do not develop it and are exposed to the risk factors. It is possible that breast cancer is caused by a complex interaction of genetic makeup and the environment in which you live.

Hereditary breast cancer for women   

  •  Doctors estimate that about 5 to 10 percent of breast cancers are linked to genetic mutations that are passed down through family generations.
  • A number of inherited mutated genes that can increase the risk of breast cancer have been identified. The most common of these genes are gene 1 for breast cancer (BRCA1) and gene 2 for breast cancer (BRCA2), both of which increase the risk of developing both breast and ovarian cancer.
  • If your family has a strong history of breast cancer or other types of cancer, your doctor may recommend a blood test to help identify specific mutations in the BRCA gene or other genes that are passed down in the family.
  • Consider asking your doctor for a referral to a genetic counselor who can review your family's health history. A genetic counselor can also discuss the benefits, risks, and limitations of genetic testing. To assist you in making joint decisions.


Risk factors of breast cancer for women 

Breast cancer risk factor is any factor that makes a woman more likely to develop breast cancer. But having one or more risk factors for breast cancer does not necessarily mean that you will develop breast cancer. Many women diagnosed with breast cancer have no known risk factors other than being a woman.

Factors associated with an increased risk of breast cancer include:

  • Being female. Women are more likely than men to develop breast cancer.
  • Old age. Your risk of developing breast cancer increases with age.
  • A patient history of breast problems. If lobular carcinoma in situ is found on breast biopsy (LCIS) or atypical hyperplasia of the breast, you have a higher risk of developing breast cancer.
  • A history of breast cancer. If you have breast cancer in one breast, you have an increased risk of developing cancer in the other breast.
  • A family history of breast cancer. If your mother, sister, or daughter has been diagnosed with breast cancer, especially at a young age, your risk of developing breast cancer increases. However, the majority of people with breast cancer do not have a family history of the disease.
  • Inherited genes that increase the likelihood of developing cancer. Some of the genetic mutations that increase the risk of breast cancer can be passed from parents to children. The most well-known gene mutations that increase the risk of breast cancer are BRCA1 and BRCA2. These genes can greatly increase the risk of breast cancer and other cancers, but they do not make cancer inevitable.
  • Exposure to radiation. If you received chest radiotherapy as a child or young adult, your risk of breast cancer increases.
  • Obesity. Being overweight or obese raises your risk of breast cancer.
  • You start your period at an early age. Beginning your period before twelve increases your risk of breast cancer.
  • Menopause begins at an advanced age. If you start menopause at an older age, you have a higher risk of developing breast cancer.
  • Having your first child at a later age. Women who give birth to their first child after the age of 30 may have a higher risk of developing breast cancer.
  • You have never been pregnant. Women who have never been pregnant are more likely to develop breast cancer than women who have become pregnant once or more.
  • Use of hormone therapy after menopause. Women who take hormone therapy medications that combine estrogen and progesterone to treat the signs and symptoms of menopause have a higher risk of developing breast cancer. The risk of breast cancer decreases when women stop taking these medications.
  • Drink alcohol. Alcohol consumption increases the risk of breast cancer.

Protection of  breast cancer for women 

  • Reducing the risk of breast cancer for women at moderate risk
  • Making changes in your daily life may reduce your risk of breast cancer. try to:

  • Ask your doctor about breast cancer screening. Discuss with your doctor when to start breast cancer screening and tests, such as clinical breast exams and mammograms.

  • Talk to your doctor about the benefits and risks of screening. By working together, you can decide which breast cancer screening strategies are most appropriate for you.

Breast self-examination

  • You can examine your breasts by self-examining their awareness. Women may choose to examine their breasts by checking them sometimes during a breast self-exam to make them aware. If there is any change, such as the development of lumps or other abnormal signs in the breast, talk to your doctor immediately.
  • Breast awareness may not prevent breast cancer, but it may help you better understand the natural changes that occur to your breasts and identify unusual signs or symptoms.
  • Drink alcohol in moderation, if needed. Limit the amount of alcohol you drink to less than one drink a day if you want to drink alcohol.
  • Exercise most days of the week. Aim for at least 30 minutes of exercise a day most days of the week. If you haven't exercised recently, ask your doctor about the possibility of exercising and start slowly.
  • Limit hormone therapy after menopause. The combination of hormone therapy may increase the risk of breast cancer. Talk to your doctor about the benefits and risks of hormone therapy.
  • Some women experience bothersome signs and symptoms during menopause, and for these women, an increased risk of breast cancer may be acceptable in order to relieve menopausal signs and symptoms.
  • To reduce your risk of developing breast cancer, use the lowest dose of hormone therapy possible for the shortest period of time.
  • Maintain a healthy weight. If you are at a healthy weight, strive to maintain your weight. And if you need to lose weight, ask your doctor about healthy strategies to achieve this. Reduce the number of calories you eat every day and slowly increase exercise.
  • Choose a healthy diet. Women who follow the Mediterranean diet may have a reduced risk of breast cancer and supplement with extra virgin olive oil and a mixture of nuts. The Mediterranean diet places more emphasis on plant-based foods, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts. People who follow the Mediterranean diet prefer healthy fats, such as olive oil, over butter, and fish over red meat.


Reducing the risk of breast cancer for women at high risk

  • If your doctor evaluates your family history and other factors and confirms your increased risk of breast cancer, then risk reduction options include:
  • Preventive drugs (chemoprophylaxis). Estrogen-blocking medications may help reduce the risk of breast cancer. Options include tamoxifen and raloxifene (Evista). Aromatase inhibitors have shown some promise in reducing the risk of breast cancer in women at high risk.
  • These medications carry a risk of side effects. Therefore, doctors restrict these medications to women at high risk of developing breast cancer. Discuss the benefits and risks with your doctor.
  • Preventive surgery. Women at high risk of breast cancer may choose to have their healthy breasts surgically removed (preventive mastectomy). You may also choose to have both healthy ovaries removed (preventive oophorectomy) to reduce the risk of both breast cancer and ovarian cancer.

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